Background and objective
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Hypertension is a major determinant of progression of CKD. Omega-3 fatty acids (v3FA) protect against CVD via improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular reactivity and serum lipids. Coenzyme Q
(CoQ) may improve blood pressure and vascular function. This study determined whether v3FA and CoQ have independent or additive effects in improving the cardiovascular pro?le, particularly blood pressure and heart rate, in nondiabetic patients with CKD stages 3–4.